THE HOLY GRAIL OF RECIPE SITES

Sourdough Recipe Compilation Part I

Ed. Note: This document formats the Sourdough Recipes, Part 1 into a hyperlinked html file. The email addresses are left for identifying the poster but may no longer be valid.

v2.01, Nov. 1993

Last-Updated: 2008/12/21

From: Darrell Greenwood

Subject: rec.food.sourdough FAQ Recipes (part 1 of 2)

Summary: A collection of recipes from the Sourdough Mailing List that preceded the rec.food.sourdough newsgroup

Date: 11 Jun 2010 04:19:39 GMT

Archive-name: food/sourdough/recipes/part1

Last-modified: 1997/09/11

Sourdough Recipe Compilation, v2.01, Nov. 1993.

Generated from/for the Sourdough Mailing List.

This list of recipes was updated from a work originally put forward by Jason Yanowitz <JYANOWITZ@hamp.hampshire.edu> There were 19 recipes in that first version compiled last march. There are now more than 90 recipes, and the works is fast becoming the size of a book!

The atributions have been re-inserted in this latest version by David Adams. (dadams@cray.com) If you have posted a signifigant recipe which did not make it's way into this collection you might send a note to that address. Clearly as any work aproaches such a large size decisions will need to be made as far as removing some recipes. At this point there is quite some redundancy with many many similar recipes for biscuits or for Amish Friendship Bread etc. With experience and better editing, perhaps future versions may eliminate some of this redundancy.

Table of Contents Sourdough Recipe Compilation Part I 000 STARTER RECIPES 001 Sourdough Starters 001a Sourdough Starter #1 001b Sourdough Starter #2 001c Sourdough Starter #3 001d Sourdough Starter #4 001e Sourdough Starter #5 001f Sourdough Starter #6 002 Sourdough Starter 100 SOURDOUGH WHITE BREAD RECIPES 101 The "World" Bread 102 Basic Bread (not from Sourdough Jack) 103 My Favorite White Bread Recipe 104 The Doctor's Sourdough Bread 105 David's Sourdough White Bread 106 Sourdough Buttermilk Bread 200 SOURDOUGH RYE BREADS 201 David's Wheat and Rye Bread 202 Tanya's Peasant Black Bread 203 Manuel's Starter Roberta's Sourdough Rye 204 Russian Starter Breads 204b Finnish Sour Rye 205 Dark Rye Bread Borodinskii 206 Sourdough Rye Bread 207 Sourdough Pumpernickel 208 Caraway Rye Bread 209 Moscow-Style Dark Rye Bread 210 Russian Black Bread 211 Notes on Russian Sourdough Bread I. Sourness of Russian cultures and the ratio of rye:wheat flour. II. A sample recipe for Borodino bread. 300 SOURDOUGH FRENCH BREADS 301 Sourdough French Bread 302 Sourdough French Bread 303 Sourdough French Bread (For Bread Machine) 304 Sourdough French Bread 304a Sourdough French Bread 304b Sourdough French Bread 305 Sourdough French Bread 306 Pain De Campagne (Pain au Levain) 400 WHOLE WHEAT AND OTHER BREADS 401 Seasoned Flat Bread 402 Whole Wheat Potato Bread 403 Sheepherder Bread 404 Cheese Batter Bread 405 Cumin Bread 406 Rewena Paraoa (Maori Bread) 407 Stove Top Bread 408 Raisin/Cinnamon Bread 409 Sourdough Sour Cream Raisin Bread 500 PIZZA CRUST, FOCACCIA, STROMBOLI ETC. 501 Sourdough Pizza Shells 502 David's Most Excellent Sourdough Pizza Crust 503 Sourdough Focaccia 600 DINNER ROLLS & BUNS ETC. 601 Rolls 602-- Cinnamon Buns 603 Sourdough English Muffins 603a Sourdough English Muffins 604 Sourdough Bagels 604a Bagels 605 Sourdough Cornbread 606 Sourdough Hot Rolls 607 Super Sourdough Corn Bread 608 Sourdough Corn Bread

Table of Contents for whole FAQ:

PART I

STARTER RECIPES

000) Explanation about Starter Recipes.

001) Sourdough Starter #1--#6

002) Sourdough Starter

203) Manuel's Starter <-- Look for this one in the Rye Breads.

406) Rewena <-- For use with Rewena Paraoa (Maori Bread)

710) Ambrosia Batter <-- Used with "American Slapjacks" but

useful for much more.

SOURDOUGH WHITE BREAD RECIPES

101) "World" Bread

102) "Basic Bread"

103) "My Favorite White Bread"

104) The Doctor's Sourdough Bread

105) David's Sourdough White Bread

106) Sourdough & Buttermilk bread

SOURDOUGH RYE BREADS

201) David's Wheat and Rye Bread

211) Borodino Russian Sourdough Rye

202) Tanya's Peasant Black Bread

203) Roberta's Sourdough Rye

204) Finnish Sour Rye

205) Dark Rye Bread Borodinskii

206) Sourdough Rye Bread (from Finland)

207) Sourdough Pumpernickle

208) Sourdough Caraway Rye Bread

209) Moscow-Style Dark Rye Bread

210) Russian Black Bread

211) Borodino Russian Sourdough Rye

SOURDOUGH FRENCH BREADS

301) Sourdough French Bread

302) Bread Machine Sourdough French Bread

303) Sourdough French Bread

304) Sourdough French Bread

305) Sourdough French Bread

306) PAIN DE CAMPAGNE (a non-sourdough french bread recipe)

WHOLE WHEAT AND OTHER BREADS

401) Seasoned Flat Bread

402) Whole Wheat Potato Bread

403) Sheepherders' Bread. (not sure if this should be under biscuts?)

404) Cheese Batter Bread

405) Cumin Bread

406) Rewena Paraoa (Maori Bread)

407) Stove Top Bread

408) Raisin/Cinnamon Bread

409) Sourcream Raisin Sourdough Bread

PIZZA CRUST, FOCACCIA, STROMBOLI ETC.

403) Sheepherders' Bread <--this recipe also recomended for pizza

501) Sourdough Pizza Shells

502) David's Most Excellent Sourdough Pizza Crust

503) Sourdough Focaccia

504) Somebody needs to give us a stomboli recipe. No?

DINNER ROLLS & BUNS ETC.

601) Rolls

602) Cinnamon Buns

603) English Muffins

604) Sourdough Bagels

605) Sourdough Cornbread

606) Sourdough Hot Rolls

607) Super Sourdough Corn Bread

608) Sourdough Corn Bread

PART II

SOURDOUGH PANCAKE & WAFFLE RECIPES

701) Doug's Pancake Recipe

702) Sourdough Waffles

703) Sourdough Jack's Pancake Recipe

704) Uebele Sourdough Pancakes

705) Alaskan Blueberry Pancakes

706) Pancakes & Waffles

707) Sourdough Pancakes or Waffles

708) Sourdough Pancakes #1 -- #5

709) Wooden Spoon Sourdough Pancakes

710) The American Slapjack

711) '49er Pancakes

712) Waffles

713) Flapjacks

SOURDOUGH BISCUITS AND THE LIKE RECIPES

801) Miss Mary Rogers of Mexico, Missouri Biscuts

802) Sourdough Biscuits

803) Sourdough Biscuits a la Sunset Magazine

804) Sourdough Biscuits

805) Sourdough Sopapillas

806) Sourdough Utah Scones

807) Sourdough Blueberry Muffins

808) Miners' Muffins

809) Western Biscuits

810) "Real" Scones <-- Undoubtedly someone could

811) Cheese Scones <-- easily convert these to

812) Gridle Scones <-- sourdough recipes. No?

813) Sourdough Limpa Muffins

814) Sourdough Pretzels

815) Sourdough Bagels

816) Sourdough Bagels

YUMMY SOURDOUGH CAKES AND THE LIKE RECIPES

901) Raspberry/Cream Cheese Sourdough Cake

902) Chocolate Sourdough Cake

903) Sourdough Chocolate Cake

904) Sourdough Doughnuts

905) Sourdough Sam's Doughnuts

906) Sourdough Applesauce Cake

907) Sourdough Banana Bread

908) Mendenhall Sourdough Gingerbread

909) Moutain Cobbler

AMISH FRIENDSHIP BREAD

1000) Amish Friendship Bread <--several recipes all with the same title

NON-SOURDOUGH or STRANGE BREADS

1101) Essene Bread

000 STARTER RECIPES

A word or two of explanation are in order about the use of "starter recipes." These recipes are quite unlike almost all recipes in that in them one is trying to "create life". Well sort of. A sourdough culture is a living thing, or at least a collection of millions of living micro-organisms. In actuality these recipes are not really the witchcraft that they may at first seem to be. While we may not be able to create these micro-organisms, we may be able to attract them, or even hunt them down in their own environments, and domesticate them or subject them to slavery. ;^)

Most sourdough cultures contain some species of yeast, and at least one strain of lactobacilli. These micro-organisms are found in many places in the environment around us. You may recognize lactobacilli as one of the bacteria that makes yogurt. Various strains or species of lactobacilli are also involved in making sour cream, cheese, butter- milk, and other cultured milk products. Sometimes lactobacilli is to blame when milk just goes sour. Hence some sourdough "starter recipes use milk to help attract lactobacilli, and some actually use ingredients like yogurt to introduce lactobacilli.

Different species or strains of lactobacilli are responsible, in large part for the different flavors and textures of the many different varieties of cheese and other cultured milk products. Similarly different strains or species of lactobacilli are mainly responsible for the different flavors produced by different sourdough cultures.

Lactobacilli are also responsible for making sauerkraut, brine cured pickles, and borscht. Usually the lactobacilli used in these recipes is on the vegetables at the time they are harvested. Hence we would not be too surprised to see recipes calling for the use of grape leaves or some other vegetable substance.

Often times the very collection of micro-organisms we desire to gather resides on the grain we intend to use for flour. This explains the use of rye flour in "Manuel's Starter" or the use of whole wheat or even unbleached white flour in a starter recipe. (Bleaching may kill some of the micro-orgainsms.) Rye flour is almost notorious for creating a very sour culture. (See the article on Borodin style bread in recipe #211 below.)

The factors that determine the selection of a strain of yeast are no less important or complicated than those which govern selection of lactobacilli strains. For example _Saccharomyces cerevisiae_ is the scientific name given to bakers' yeast. Home brew enthusiasts will recognize this also as brewers' yeast. (Different strains are used for each application. Brewers also use _S. carlsbergensis_) _Saccharomyces cerevisiae_ does not well tolerate an acidic environment such as is found in a sourdough culture. The lactobacilli are constantly producing lactic acids which give the bread its sour taste. Hence a culture that begins with active dry yeast can never really become more than very mildly sour unless at some time the culture is invaded by another kind of yeast.

Many (Most?) sourdough cultures contain a strain of _Saccharomyces exiguus_, which does of course tolerate rather acidic conditions. Hence, some starter recipes include vinegar in order to make the batter acidic so as to prevent bakers' yeast from getting a start and selecting in favor of _Saccharomyces exiguus_.

Location may also prove to be an important factor as some strains of desired micro-organisms may be more prevalent in some habitats, such as the San Francisco bay area, or Germany, for example.

Of course none of the starter recipes are guaranteed to work. These creatures may seem to have a mind of their own. If you are unsuccessful perhaps you might try again, or in another place or season of the year, or you might try another recipe.

If you are frustrated with all that, you might consider obtaining a culture from someone who already has one. You probably have a neighbor or relative who has a culture. Otherwise you can obtain a culture from one of a variety of commercial sources. Also many of the readers of this newsgroup have offered to share cultures for as little effort required as sending a self addressed stamped envelope (SASE) and a zip-lock bag. Many of these cultures have been in continuous use for nearly a hundred years. Some cultures (such as the Mid-Eastern cultures from Sourdoughs International) may go back for thousands of years. If you peruse the FAQ file FAQ.culture.bank you will find the addresses of several commercial companies as well as several individuals who are willing to share cultures.

Whether you decide to try to capture a new culture, or go with an ancient one, I wish you the best of luck, and do let the group know how things go.

Sourdough Dave (dadams@cray.com)

I would like to thank Charles Delwiche for helping me to understand much of the biology involved, however any inaccuracies portrayed are entirely my own responsibility.

Also I note that I contradict myself with respect to Manuel's starter. (It begins with a grain of bakers' yeast.) Perhaps the hope is that at some point a wild yeast will take over? Has anybody tried it with out the use of any bakers' yeast?

001 Sourdough Starters

001a Sourdough Starter #1

2 c Unbleached Flour

1 pk Active Dry Yeast

1 x Water To Make Thick Batter

Mix Flour with yeast. Add enough water to make a thick batter. Set in warm place for 24 hours or until house is filled with a delectable yeasty smell.

001b Sourdough Starter #2

Servings: 1

2 c Unbleached Flour

1 x Water To Make Thick Batter

Mix flour and water to make a thick batter. Let stand uncovered for four or five days, or until it begins working. This basic recipe requires a carefully scalded container.

001c Sourdough Starter #3

Servings: 1

2 c Unbleached Flour

1 x Warm Milk To Make

Thick Bat.

This starter is the same as starter #2 but uses warm Milk instead of water. Use the same instructions.

001d Sourdough Starter #4

Servings: 1

1 x Unbleached Flour

1 x Potato Water

Boil some potatoes for supper, save the potato water, and use it lukewarm with enough unbleached flour to make a thick batter. without yeast. This is a good way to make it in camp, where you have no yeast available and want fast results. This is also the way most farm girls made it in the olden days. Let stand a day or so, or until it smells right.

001e Sourdough Starter #5

Servings: 1

4 c Unbleached Flour

2 T Salt

2 T Sugar

4 c Lukewarm Potato Water

Put all ingredients in a crock or large jar and let stand in a warm place uncovered several days. This is the authors last choice for making a starter, but seems to be in all the cookbooks dealing with Sourdough Starters. Use only as a last resort.

001f Sourdough Starter #6

Servings: 1

1 c Milk

1 c Unbleached Flour

Let milk stand for a day or so in an uncovered container at room temperature. Add flour to milk and let stand for another couple of days. When it starts working well and smells right, it is ready to use.

NOTE: All containers for starters not using yeast, must be carefully scalded before use. If you are careless or do not scald them the starter will fail.

002 Sourdough Starter

From David Adams (dadams@cray.com)

This recipe was given to me by a neighbor lady.

2 C milk - put in glass or ceramic bowl (not metal) and set stand uncovered in warm place for 24 hours.

Stir in 2 C sifted flour and allow to stand 2 days until bubbles and gets sour smell.

Store in fridge in quart size jar or crock with loose cover. (If cover is too tight CO2 may cause explosion.) If liquid rises to top give it a stir. Starter gets better with age.

Use it every 10 days or so and when you take some out add 1 C flour and 1 C water, set in warm place for 24 hrs. (or more) then cover loosely and refrig.

If you don't use it, activate it every couple of weeks by throwing out all but 1 C starter and adding equal amounts of flour and water. Try to keep 2 C. on hand. Let warm (take out over night) before using.

100 SOURDOUGH WHITE BREAD RECIPES

101 The "World" Bread

# From dadams@cray.com

Here is the recipe I used for my bread.

(Copied by permission from Ed. Wood's book "Sourdoughs from Antiquity.",p. 38 & 39)

I will add my own comments with "dca>"

STEP I: CULTURE PREPARATION

1) Remove the culture from the refrigerator

2) Add 1/2 cup of white flour and 1/2 cup warm water to the culture jar and mix briefly. The total mixture will be about 2 1/4 cups. It need not be lump free.

3) Proof at 85 deg. F. for 6 to 12 hours until actively fermenting (as shown by bubbles on the surface).

dca> The Russian Culture requires about 2 or 3 hours to reach this stage if the correct temperature is maintained. Time depends mostly on how many spores remain in culture at time of use.

STEP II: THE FIRST PROOF

1) Mix all of the active culture with 3 cups of white flour and 2 cups of warm water in a 4 quart mixing bowl. It need not be lump free.

2) Proof at 85 deg. F. for 12 hours.

dca> The Russian culture requires only 6 hours at this stage.

3) RETURN 1 cup of culture to the culture jar. Add 1/3 cup of white flour and 1/3 cup of warm water and proof at 85 deg. F. for one hour. Then refrigerate immediately.

STEP III: THE SECOND PROOF

REMEMBER TO REFRIGERATE one cup of culture from the first proof before proceeding.

INGREDIENTS

4 cups culture from the first proof

dca> (if I have more I use it all.)

2 tablespoons butter

1 cup milk

2 teaspoons salt

2 tablespoons sugar

6 cups white flour

1) Melt the butter over moderate heat (or heat in the microwave), add the milk to the butter, warm briefly, add the salt and sugar, and stir until dis- solved. Add this mixture to the culture and mix well.

2) Add the flour a cup at a time until dough is too stiff to mix by hand. Then turn onto a floured board and knead in remaining flour until the dough is smooth and satiny.

dca> I knead about 15 min by hand.

3) Divide dough in half and form two balls.

4) Pat each ball into a one inch thick oval and form loaves by rolling from the long side, pinching the seam together as you roll the dough to form the loaf.

dca> I often put a flattened ball of dough in the Dutch oven.

5) Place in greased loaf pans and proof at 85 deg. F. for 1 1/2 to 3 hours. When the dough rises 1 to 2 inches above lip of pan, it is ready to bake.

dca> It helps if the dough can rise in a very humid place. When I am baking in the regular oven, I put the dough in a camping cooler with a bucket of hot water. This keeps the dough warm and humid. Problem: I have to stack the pans. If the dough rises above the lip, it hits the next pan and ruins the texture. This is why I want to build a new proofing box.

dca> If you use so much dough that it rises above the lip of the Dutch oven, then you have trouble. Takes experience to know how much dough to use. This recipe can make 3 loaves for a 10" dutch oven, or one 10" and one 12". If it isn't quite warm enough, I place one or two coals on the lid of the dutch oven to let the bread rise.

6) Preheat the oven to 375 deg. F. Ten minutes after putting the bread in, reduce heat to 350 deg. F. and bake an additional 45 minutes.

dca> I find this to be too long. Watch out!

dca> Elsewhere in the book Ed. Wood recommends putting a tray of water in the oven for the first 10 minutes. This is supposed to improve the crust and give it a French bread texture. You see if it works.

dca> For the Dutch oven I put 4 coals on the bottom of a 10" oven and 9 on the top. I cook it for about 35 minutes. I use 5 coals on the bottom and 11 on the top for the 12" oven. If it is very cold outside, it may take more time, and you probably need more coals. I baked bread in -20 deg. F. weather in January once.

7) When the bread is removed from the oven, brush crusts lightly with melted butter. Turn out of pans and cool on a wire rack.

dca> When using the dutch oven, I just turn the oven over and the bread falls out onto the wire rack. My kids call it circle bread.

102 Basic Bread (not from Sourdough Jack)

# From lynn@coral.cs.jcu.edu.au (Lynn Alford)

After proofing, remove one cup of starter to your frig. Add a bit of oil, and salt (if desired, I rarely do) to the remaining sponge. Begin adding flour one cup at a time. Mix in flour until the dough begins coming away from the bowl. Knead dough, using extra flour as necessary. Allow to proof (with sourdough, time will vary on this. Expect a minimum of two hours. You want to double the size of the dough.) Now shape and bake in 425 F oven for 20 minutes then turn oven to 375 and continue baking for 1 hour.

Variations. I have used just this basic dough as a base for pizza (very nice) and as the dough to line a casserole dish, pour in a ground beef/tomato/Italian seasonings mixture, and top with some reserved sourdough. Bake for 30 minutes. Also very nice.

103 My Favorite White Bread Recipe

# From: servio!penneyj@uunet.UU.NET (D. Jason Penney)

This is my bread recipe that all of my friends say is the best. I have made it literally hundreds of times. It is good sandwich bread, and makes outrageous toast.

I am going to assume that you are familiar with sourdough techniques. I am a recently joined member of this mailing list, so I don't know what's already been distributed, and I don't want to bore you if you already know the basics. Alternately, I have a discussion of basic sourdough techniques published in a local cookbook; I could reproduce that here if there is sufficient interest.

Start by making starter (of course!). For this recipe, I use:

"Sourdough Bread Batter"

1 C starter

2 C warm water

2.5 C flour

Allow to proof overnight, 8-15 hours.

yields: 1 C starter to return, 2.5 C starter to bake

The recipe:

2.5 C sourdough bread batter

1.5 C water (or milk, or 1 C yogurt + .5 C water) -- make sure water is warm, else scald milk in microwave

2 T sugar

2 T melted butter

2 t salt

3-4.5 C flour

yields: 2 loaves

1. Add 1 C flour to starter. Mix in liquid, then sugar, salt, and butter.

2. Add flour until dough turns from sides of bowl.

3. Turn out onto kneading board and knead in .5 - 1 C more C of flour.

4. Let proof until doubled in bulk. For us sourdough users, this can be a LONG proof, depending on how cold the flour was when we started. Plan on no less than 2 hours, possible 3.

5. Punch down, let rise again (about 1 hour).

6. Turn out, punch down, shape into loaves.

7. Let rise about halfway (approximately 30 minutes), then bake in a preheated 375 degrees F oven 45-50 minutes.

8. Turn out onto cooling racks, allow to completely cool before wrapping. You may optionally brush the loaves with water or melted butter while still warm, but I don't usually bother.

I had a friend who recently called me in a panic after she made this for the first time, because the crust was hard :-). As a matter of fact, the crust softens quite a bit in about a day. Isn't all sourdough bread this way?

I have also added 1.5 C grated sharp cheese before adding the flour. If you do this, be careful with the cooking time; the bread will brown much easier.

104 The Doctor's Sourdough Bread

Servings: 18

1 c Sourdough Starter

2 c Warm Water

2 c Warm Milk

1 T Butter

1 pk Active Dry Yeast

1/4 c Honey

7 c Unbleached Flour

1/4 c Wheat Germ

2 T Sugar 2 t Salt

2 t Baking Soda

Mix the starter and 2 1/2 Cups of the flour and all the water the night before you want to bake. Let stand in warm place overnight. Next morning mix in the butter with warm milk and stir in yeast until until dissolved. Add honey and when thoroughly mixed, add 2 more cups of flour, and stir in the wheat germ.

Sprinkle sugar, salt, and baking soda over the mixture. Gently press into dough and mix lightly. Allow to stand from 30 to 50 minutes until mixture is bubbly. Add enough flour until the dough cleans the sides of the bowl.

Then place the dough on a lightly floured board and knead 100 times or until silky mixture is developed. Form into 4 1-lb loaves, place in well-greased loaf pans 9 x 3 size.

Let rise until double, about 2 to 3 hours in a warm room.

Then bake in hot oven, 400 degrees F, for 20 minutes.

Reduce oven temp. to 325 degrees F. and bake 20 minutes longer or until thoroughly baked.

Remove from pans and place loaves on rack to cool.

Butter tops of loaves to prevent hard crustiness.

Makes 4 1-lb Loaves

105 David's Sourdough White Bread

# From David Adams (dadams@cray.com)

I made sourdough bread on the last camp-out too. It came out the most like french bread of any loaf I ever made. I used:

1 1/2 to 2 cups sourdough culture. (I used the Alaskan, my vote for the best camping culture.)

1 tsp salt.

1 cup water.

Just enough quality bread flour to make a nice dough. Not too dry. (maybe 2 cups?)

Knead until you drop dead. (Long time) Try to see if you can stretch the dough papery thin without ripping. If you can come close you are done. I have a large bread board I take camping that I used for kneading.

Shape the loaf into a rounded disk (it helps to grease your hands to do this) and set in a greased 12" Dutch oven. Put the lid on. Set the Dutch oven in the sun if it is too cool. Keep an eye on it and move it back to the shade if it is getting hot. etc.

After about 2 hours of rising I begin to cook. It helps to get experience cooking with charcoal briquettes before you try to use the open fire. I used hot wood coals from the fire. It helps if the wood was hard wood like oak. I cook the bread for about 1 hour. When using briquettes I use about 7-8 on the bottom (for a 12" oven) and 14-16 on the top. With a wood fire I try to use a similar amount of coals. Open the oven often during the cooking process to check on the progress. Be ware that the top may look great while the bottom is burning charcoal black! Better to have too little heat on the bottom than too much!

106 Sourdough Buttermilk Bread

# From sak@geosc.psu.edu (Sridhar Anandakrishnan)

...mmm, mmm, good!

Just made a sourdough buttermilk bread that turned out great. I used a starter graciously supplied by Joy Metcalfe, and here is what I did:

1 cup starter + 1/2 cup flour, 1/2 cup warm water to get the beasties active.

Let sit for 12+ hours.

Add

3 cups flour,

2 cups warm water,

mix and let it sit overnight. It should be stringy, glutinous, and smelly ("it smells like ******* in here," exclaimed my wife).

Add

1 1/4 cups COLD low fat buttermilk,

4 cups flour

mix until the dough comes away from the sides of the bowl. Turn out onto the counter and knead until it is silky smooth (15 min). Add water or flour as necessary -- add water by wetting your hands and kneading.

Let it rise (cool <= 70 deg F) for 3-4 hrs.

Turn out onto counter, flatten and press out gas (shouldn't be too much).

Round the loaf and let rise again 1-2 hrs.

Again, flatten and press out gas.

Divide into 2 parts, and form loaves (I like simple round peasant loaves), and allow to proof upside down on a floured cloth.

Preheat oven to 375. Sprinkle cornmeal generously on tile or baking sheet surface.

After 30-40 min, turn straight side up onto a floured peel, slash the top, and slide onto tiles or baking sheet in 375 preheated oven.

Eat HOT, with a bit of sweet butter.

Sridhar.

200 SOURDOUGH RYE BREADS

201 David's Wheat and Rye Bread

# From dadams@cray.com

I will pick up the recipe assuming you start with 4 cups of culture

>from the first proof of the Russian starter. (Since all the recipes begin the same way.) I doubled the recipe; the one I modified this from started with 2 cups of culture.

Ingredients

4 cups culture from the first proof

2 tablespoons dark molasses (I have skipped the molasses)

2 tablespoons honey (I have skipped the honey)

1 cup milk (I have used water)

2 teaspoons ground coriander

2 teaspoons salt

3-4 cups finely milled rye flour

3-4 cups finely milled whole wheat flour

(The total here should be between 7-8 cups.)

Note: The recipe I modified called for 2 cups rye 2 cups wheat and 3 cups white. I use the K-TEC kitchen mill and mill my own flour from grain. I have recommendations on buying grain if you are interested. I can also pass on information about K-TEC. ( K-TEC has a toll free number 1-800-748-5400.)

Note 2: The recipe I modified called for 4 tablespoons of vegetable oil. I omitted it and I liked the results.

Directions:

1. Warm the milk to lukewarm

2. Add Milk, molasses, honey, salt and coriander to the culture in a large mixing bowl and mix briefly.

3. Add most of the flour and mix well. Add flour until too stiff to mix by hand. Then turn onto a floured table and knead in the remaining flour until satiny. (I knead about 15 min.)

4. I have made loaves in regular bread pans and also laid loaves on a greased baking sheet. If you use the baking sheet I think the loaf needs to be stiffer. Proof at 85 deg F for 2 or 3 hours.

5. Bake at 350 deg. F. for about 40 minutes. Cool on a wire rack.

6. I find that the slicing properties improve after the bread has a chance to sit and gel for a day or two. I slice the bread very thinly, about 3/16 of an inch thick. The bread could be sliced thinner but my shaky hands can't manage it.

202 Tanya's Peasant Black Bread

# From dadams@cray.com

I am not real sure that this is the same thing you tried but here is a recipe I got with my sourdough start from "Sourdoughs International".

Makes 1 loaf

Uses the Russian sourdough culture available from "Sourdoughs International" (you get this recipe with the start) (Their phone is 208-382-4828.)

Sourdoughs International

PO Box 1440

Cascade, ID 83611.

This dark bread will rise beautifully in 2 1/2 hours with the Russian starter and form a tantalizing moist loaf.

CULTURE PREPARATION

1. Remove the Russian culture from the refrigerator

2. Add 1/2 cup of white flour and 1/2 cup warm water to the culture jar and mix briefly to form a thick batter. The total mixture will be about 2 1/4 cups. It need not be lump free.

3. Proof at 85 deg. F. for about 3 hours until actively fermenting (as shown by bubbles on the surface).

THE FIRST PROOF

1. Mix all of the active culture with 3 cups of white flour and 2 cups of warm water in a 4 quart mixing bowl. It need not be lump free.

2. Proof at 85 deg. F. for 6 hours.

3. Return 1 cup of culture to the culture jar. Add 1/3 cup of warm water. Stir briefly and proof at 85 deg. F. for one hour. Then refrigerate immediately.

Note: The first proof given here provides enough culture for two of the following recipes.

THE SECOND PROOF

INGREDIENTS

2 cups culture from the first proof

2 tablespoons dark molasses

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

1/2 cup milk

2 tablespoons sugar

1 teaspoon ground coriander

1 teaspoon salt

1 cup rye flour

1 cup whole wheat flour

1 1/2 cups white flour

1. Warm the milk

2. Add molasses, oil, sugar, salt, and coriander to the warm milk and mix briefly.

3. Add the rye flour and mix well. Add the whole wheat flour and mix well. Add the white flour until too stiff to mix by hand. Then turn onto a floured board and knead in the remaining flour until satiny.

4. Form an oval loaf by flattening a ball to a 1 1/2 inch thick oval and folding once in half. Pinch the seam together.

5. Place on a greased baking sheet, seam side down and proof at 85 deg F. for 2 or 3 hours or until about double in bulk.

6. Bake at 350 deg. F. for about 40 minutes. Cool on a wire rack.

Note: I modified this recipe a bit based on my experience. The original called for baking at 375 deg. F. for 45 to 50 min. It also called for 12 hours in the first proof. I think this is just the general line Dr. Wood's book gives for all of his cultures. It is too long for the Russian culture.

203 Manuel's Starter

# From: Tom Molnar <molnar@utcs.utoronto.ca>

Note: the following recipe takes overnight. Start the recipe the day BEFORE you want to bake the bread.

>From Laurel's Kitchen Bread book:

1 grain (granule) yeast

1/2 teaspoon milk

1-1/2 cups whole rye (as fresh as possible)

1-1/2 cups water.

Combine above, should be consistency of pancake batter. Store between 65F and 80F in a nonmetal container, covered. Let stand 3 to 5 days, stirring twice a day until it starts to smell like a sour should. If it smells real bad, then it got too warm, and you should start over. After that, treat it like any other sour.

Roberta's Sourdough Rye

1/3 cup Manuel's starter

3/4 cup warm water

2 cups whole rye flour (as fresh as possible)

1/4 onion, separated into pieces.

Combine the flour, water and starter making a dough. Push the onion pieces into the dough. Cover tightly, leave at room temperature for 12 to 15 hours or more.

----

above mixture

4 teaspoons yeast (this sounds excessive, but who am I to argue)

2/3 cup warm water

3-1/2 cups whole hard wheat flour (as fresh as possible)

2-1/2t - 1 tablespoon caraway seeds

1/3 cup warm water for kneading

Dissolve yeast in warm water, and combine with the rest of the ingredients. Keep the 1/3 cup water separate for kneading. The trick is in the kneading. Knead for about 15 minutes, and during this time use the 1/3 cup water to wet your hands -- don't add the water at once. Knead for 15 to 20 minutes or until the dough is soft or becomes unpleasantly sticky.

Put dough in a clean bowl (no oil), cover, and let rise once only at 80F. This takes about 1-1/2 hours -- careful not to let it go over. Use the finger poke test (it's ready when a wet finger poked into the dough leaves a hole that no longer fills in). Shape the loaves properly (hearth or french style) and place on greased baking sheet sprinkled with cornmeal. Let rise again at 80-90F (30-45 mins) but keep an eye out not to let it go too far. It's ready when a depression left by a finger (not a hole!) fills in slowly.

Slash the loaves well and place in a oven pre-heated to 450 F. Use a steam technique for 10 mins, then reduce heat to 325F and bake for 40 - 50 mins until done (remove the pan of water after first 10 mins).

For the steam technique, I put 1 cup of boiling water in a metal pan on the bottom of the oven, and in addition, sprayed the loaves with water 4 times (once when I put the loaves in and then every 3 minutes).

I got a nice crust as a result.

204 Russian Starter Breads

# From: Julie A. Kangas <kangas@aero.org>

Well, as I mentioned last week, I spent this weekend baking bread with the Russian culture. All I have to say is WOW, is this stuff aggressive. After a few hours it had invaded my kitchen and set up a puppet government ;-). Seriously, it was a very strong bubbler and had no trouble with some very heavy (and probably not kneaded enough) dough.

I made three kinds of bread; the black bread from Sourdough International, a Finnish sour rye (adapted from "The Finnish Cookbook" by Beatrice Ojakangas), and "Dark Rye Bread Borodinskii" (adapted from "The Art of Russian Cuisine" by Anne Volokh). Both the Finnish sour rye and the Borodinskii bread use the rye sour (milk and rye left to get very sour) for flavoring and some commercial yeast for leavening. I modified these recipes to use the Russian culture, so any yuckiness is my fault.

I made the black bread and borodinskii bread on Saturday. My culture did quite well but it was perhaps not as sour as I would have liked. This could be due to the sweetness of the breads though. (The borodinskii bread is even sweeter than the black bread but has a very hearty rye taste. It is darker than the "black bread"). However, the next day I made the Finnish rye bread and it was quite a bit stronger. (The proofing times were the same each day) It had a very nice sour (but not stomach turning) smell and taste. (This is not a sweet bread though). I'm very happy how this turned out (the other breads are yummy too). Perhaps a culture gets stronger after a few uses.

I've included recipes below, but first a few words about them. The Finnish rye uses a rye based sour so I cut down the amount of white flour (since it's in the Russian culture) and slightly increased the rye. It seems to be the same as when I made it before (except for the culture which is better).

The borodinskii bread also used a rye starter. It called for a cup of white flour which I deleted (again, the Russian culture is based on white flour). The rest of the flour is dark rye. There is also a recipe for an all-dark rye bread (including starter) in the book. I haven't tried it yet.

Here are the recipes which are cryptic if you haven't made bread before:

204b Finnish Sour Rye

4 cups starter from first proof

1/4 cup warm water

2 tsp salt

4 cups rye flour

1 1/2 - 2 cups white flour

Mix starter, water, salt and rye. Add white flour to form a stiff dough. Knead until smooth. Divide dough in half. For western Finland style loaves, shape into balls and flatten until 1 inch in height and 8-10 inches in diameter. Make a hole about 2 inches in diameter in the center. For eastern Finland style loaves, form two rounded loaves. Prick loaves with fork and let rise about 2 hours. Bake at 375 for 45 min.

205 Dark Rye Bread Borodinskii

2 cups starter from first proof

1/3 cup warm water

1 1/3 tbsp shortening

1/4 cup dark malt syrup

1 tbsp corn syrup

3/4 tsp salt

2 1/2 tbsp sugar

3/4 tsp ground coriander

4 1/2 - 5 cups dark rye flour (1)

Mix all ingredients and knead for 30 minutes (2). Shape dough into a ball and let rise about 2 hours. Bush loaf with water and sprinkle with more ground coriander. Place a pan of water into pre-heated (don't you hate it when they tell you to pre-heat oven halfway through the procedure?) 425 degree oven. Bake for 5 min and remove pan. Continue baking for 1 1/4 hours (3) at 375.

Mix 1/2 tsp potato starch with 2 tbsp water and brush on warm loaf.

A Few Confessions:

(1) I didn't have dark rye flour. Medium rye seemed to work but...

(2) I confess, I didn't knead this long. You may need to adjust the amount of flour used if you knead longer or use the darker rye.

(3) I think this is too long. I took my bread out earlier.

----------------------------------------------------

Well, I'm very happy with my culture. I didn't notice any sort of nasty slimy smell that David mentions about his Russian culture. Mind just had a very honest, sour, alcoholic smell. Mmmmmmm. I let my first proof go for 8 hours and I think it could go longer without making the bread inedible.

Julie

206 Sourdough Rye Bread

# From: Seismo Malm <Seismo.Malm@palikka.jyu.fi>

I have been reading sourdough archives now for a couple of days. I hadn't realized that you can make sourdough bread from wheat too. We here in Finland make sourdough only from rye. Finnish rye sourdough bread is somewhat more sour than Russian and baked for a longer period. In some parts of Finland they make sweetish sourdough bread too.

I have been baking sourdough bread now for about 15 years and I have always used the same recipe that my grandma used. My grandma was partially paralyzed for her last 25 years, so the original culture was lost, but I have generated sourdough cultures from skimmed milk+rye flour mixture (There is always lactobasilli in flour) and from viili (a Finnish soured milk product)

Generally cultures from viili make a very active and very sour cultures and they start making good bread in about month. Skimmed milk + rye flour cultures produce milder flavour but they have taken about half a year to produce good bread.

Sourdough bread from wheat was quite nice and I plan to make it regularly, perhaps every two weeks or something like that.

If you are interested about soured milk products, I could send you a culture for it. It is more firmer than yoghourt and not as sour. Especially kids like it.

There is my recipe for sourdough rye bread.

100 G Sourdough Starter

2 Liter Water

Salt

Rye Flour

1. Mix starter and lukewarm water. Add rye flour until it can support a wooden spoon upright for a some time.

2. Add little flour every 12 hours.

3. I sour it for about 3 days. It foams very much, but the level of foaming is subsiding at this point.

4. I freeze 2/3 of the dough for later use.

5. Add flour until dough is easy to form. I add the salt at this point too. I use 2 teaspoonfuls for 1/3 of dough.

6. Knead.

7. Form the dough into a bread shape.

8. Let rise until the size is about double.

9. Bake until done. I use about 200 C for about 2 hours.

My proofing temperature is quite low so this is reason for a long time. Besides, I like very sour sourdough myself. Added bonus is that the bread will keep for a long time.

207 Sourdough Pumpernickel

#From ??

Servings: 10

1 1/2 C Active Sourdough Starter

2 T Caraway Seeds, Chopped

2 C Unsifted Rye Flour

1/2 C Boiling Black Coffee

1/2 C Molasses

1/4 C Dry Skim Milk

2 T Salt

3 T Melted Shortening

1/2 C Whole Milk

2 3/4 C Unbleached Flour

1 pk Active Dry Yeast

Pour boiling coffee over chopped caraway seeds. Let the mixture cool and then add it to the rye flour and starter which have previously been mixed well. Let stand for 4 to 8 hours in a warm place, preferably overnight. Then add the molasses, dry milk, salt, shortening,liquid milk, unbleached flour and yeast. Mix well. Cover the bowl and let rise to double. Then knead on floured board and shape into two round loaves on baking sheet. Let rise until double again and bake at 350 degrees for 30 minutes or until done.

208 Caraway Rye Bread

# From Randy Hayman

sxrmh1@orca.alaska.edu

Sourdough:

The (+/-) below means just that, more or less depending the feel of the dough, the desired result(s), and your experimentation comfort level.

3 C sourdough starter sponge

1 1/2 C warm water (+/- depending upon the consistency of your sponge)

4 1/2 C (+/-) all purpose flour

2 C rye flour

2 tsp salt

2-4 Tbsp (+/-) caraway seeds

1 Tbsp (+/-) poppy seeds

2 Tbsp real butter

1 Tbsp granulated sugar

cornmeal

1 egg lightly beaten with 1 Tbsp water

The day before making the bread add 2 cups flour and 1 1/4 cups warm water to 1 cup of saved sourdough starter in a glass/Pyrex/ceramic bowl. Cover with plastic wrap, or lid and let stand at room temperature until the next day. Day 2, stir down the sourdough sponge and save off all but 1- 1 1/2 cups of the starter, for next time. Add the remaining sponge (about 3 cups) to a mixing bowl and add the water, flours, salt, seeds, butter, and sugar. Mix well, and start kneading when mixing gets too difficult (if you start mixing with your hands, there is not really a transition at this point).

Knead in additional all purpose flour as needed to form your proper consistency dough. Let the dough rest for a bit (about 10 minutes), while you butter a bowl, etc...

Now, butter the ball of dough and place in the buttered bowl. Cover and let rise until doubled in bulk. (The buttering of the bowl and the dough is not absolutely necessary, if you have a container in which to place the dough so that it doesn't start to dry out.)

When the dough has doubled in bulk, punch it down and knead it with as little flour as you can get away with. Divide the dough in half. Shape each half into round, oblong, long, Vienna, etc... loaves as strikes your fancy.

Place the loaves on peels sprinkled with cornmeal. If you don't have peels, place the loaves on bake stones sprinkled with cornmeal.

Cover and let rise until they look right (about doubled in bulk).

Preheat oven to 375 with a pan of water on the bottom of the oven (those of you with electric ovens, try placing the pan of water on the shelf as close to the element as you can, we want the water to become steam during the baking process)

Brush with egg wash just prior to placing in the oven.

If you have peels, preheat your bake stones in your preheating oven. Then just slide the loaves onto the bake stone (just seconds after sprinkling the bake stones with cornmeal)

Bake at 375 for 30 minutes or until done. (done may be a certain brown color, or when you rap the loaf with your knuckle, it sounds hollow) Cool covered with towels if you prefer to keep the crust soft.

Randy

sxrmh1@orca.alaska.edu

209 Moscow-Style Dark Rye Bread

# From: julie@eddie.jpl.nasa.gov (Julie Kangas)

From _The Art of Russian Cuisine_ by Anne Volokh.

Starter:

1 tbsp active starter

2 1/2 cups warm water

2 cups dark rye flour

Mix ingredients and let proof at a LOW temperature for about 12 hours (this low temperature is VERY important if you're using the Russian culture as it can often smell like vomit when it's fed whole grains)

Bread:

All the starter

3 1/4 cup dark rye flour

1 tbsp shortening (oil is easier)

6 1/2 tbsp dark malt syrup

1/4 tsp corn syrup

1 tsp salt

1/2 tsp caraway (optional)

Ok. This takes work. You knead, knead, knead,..... It also acts like the monster that wants to eat the world's supply of rye flour. Knead at least 30 minutes if you're kneading vigorously. More if not. Shape into a slightly flattened ball.

Be prepared. This won't rise a whole lot.

Place a pan of water in the bottom of an oven heated to 425. Bake bread for 5 min then reduce heat to 375 and bake another 1 1/4 hours. Age bread 6 hours before eating.

Julie

210 Russian Black Bread

<Editors note: Any takers on converting this to a sourdough recipe?>

# From zola@hardy.u.washington.edu (Queen of the Netherlands)

Try this bread warm from the oven, thickly buttered and topped with thin slices of sweet red onion.